Broadly speaking, Rajasthan has a tropical desert climate. It is extremely cold from October to February while the scorching sun tortures the land from March to September. Due to scanty rainfall, women can be seen carrying water for miles to meet their daily needs during summers. To the south of Rajasthan, River Luni and River Chambal River and its tributaries bless the people with their water and form an alluvial basin in Kota.
There are distinct temperature
range variations diurnal and seasonally throughout the state, revealing
the most typical phenomenon of the warm-dry continental climate. The
summer begins in the month of March while the temperature keeps rising
progressively through April, May and June. West of Rajasthan and the
eastern side of Aravalli Range, in the region of Bikaner, Phalodi,
Jaisalmer and Barmer, the maximum daily temperature hovers around 40°C
to 45°C. Sometimes, it even reaches as high a 49°C during the
summer months. Nights of summers see a considerable temperature fall
with a minimum daily temperature around 20°C to 29°C. However,
Udaipur and Mount Abu, have a pleasanter climate in summers with a
relatively lower daily maximum temperature that reaches 38°C and
31.5°C, respectively. The daily minimum temperature at nights for
these two stations hovers around 25°C and 22°C, respectively.
The major portion of the state tat consists of the arid west and the
semi-arid mid-west has an average maximum of 45°C in June.
January is the coldest month in the
stare of Rajasthan. The minimum temperatures sometimes fall to -2°C
in the night at places like Sikar, Churu, Pilani and Bikaner. The sandy
land gets even colder with occasional secondary Western winds that cross
the western, northern and eastern Rajasthan during winter months, and
even cause light rainfall and chilly winds can be experienced during
this period. Most of the Rajasthan, except the southeast Rajasthan
comprising of Kota, Bundi and Baran and western Barmer have an average
temperature of more than 10°C. Due to the cold western winds, the
whole of Rajasthan sometimes come under the spell of the cold wave for 2
to 5 days during winters.
Rajasthan being the desert area,
its climate varies mostly from arid to sub-humid. To the west of the
Aravallis, the climate is marked by low rainfall, extreme diurnal and
annual temperature, low humidity and high velocity winds. In the east of
the Aravallis, the climate is semi-arid to sub-humid marked by lower
wind velocity and higher humidity and better rainfall. The annual
rainfall in the state differs significantly. The average annual rainfall
ranges from less than 10 cm in north-west part of Jaisalmer region
(lowest in the state), to 20 to 30 cm in the regions of Ganganagar,
Bikaner and Barmer, 30 to 40 cm in the regions of Nagaur, Jodhpur, Churu
and Jalor and more than 40 cm in the regions of Sikar, Jhunjhunun, Pali
and the western fringes of the Aravalli range. The more fortunate
eastern side of the Aravallis see 55 cm rainfall in Ajmer to 102 cm
rainfall in Jhalawar. Mount Abu in the Sirohi district in the southwest
region receives the highest rainfall in the state (163.8 cm). The
southwest monsoon begins in the last week of June in the eastern parts
and may last till mid-September. There are occasionally pre-monsoon
showers in mid-June while post-monsoon rains may occur in October.
Winters may also receive a little rainfall with the passing of western
distribution over the region. However, Rajasthan receives most of its
monthly rainfall during July and August.