Rajasthan is principally a Hindi-speaking region in its various dialects. Rajasthani comprises of five primary dialects - Marwari, Mewari, Dhundhari, Mewati and Harauti along with several other forms that we discuss here. These dialects have been derived as a distortion of the linguistic and orthographical peculiarities of the language with time. Rajasthani literature faced its worst period during the British Raj period. However, it is flourishing these days as hundreds of poets and writers have emerged who use the vernacular form of Rajasthani language as their medium. Rajasthan's folk literature is rich and varied in its nature and exists in forms of the folk songs, so famous folklores, witty sayings and proverbs, riddles and much-treasured folk-plays known as 'khayals'.
most common language of Rajasthan is Marwari, spoken mainly in
and around Jodhpur district. The mixed dialects of Marwari are also
spoken in Barmer, Jalore, Pali, part of Nagaur district. In the east, it
influences the dialects of Ajmer, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, to the
south in Sirohi district and in the west, it affects the dialects of
Jaisalmer district. Bikaner, Churu, Sikar and Jhunjhunu districts in the
north are also influenced by Marwari while in the northwest, it is
spoken with Punjabi influence in the Ganganagar district.
Mewari is actually the
eastern form of Marwari used frequently to the southeast of the former
princely state of Mewar, which comprised of Udaipur, Bhilwara and
Chittorgarh districts, and its neighborhood. The dialect used in the
western parts of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Thar and Parkar areas of the former
Sind is called Thali in the north and Dhatak in the
west. In Bikaner it is called Bikaneri while in the northeastern
part of Churu, it is known as Bagri.
Jaipurior Dhundhari, earns a second place in terms of
use and covers the districts of Jaipur, Tonk, Kota, Bundi, parts of
Kishangarh, Ajmer and Jhalawar. Mewati is a dialect of Jaipuri
to the northeast, which assumes the form of Braja Bhasha in
Bharatpur. Mewati is actually the language of the former Mewat, the
abode of the Meos. Dang is a further sub-dialect of Braja Bhasa
in Sawai Madhopur and Karauli and that of Bundeli and Malvi in Jhalawar and the southern parts of Kota. Kishangarhi is spoken in Kishangarh and Ajmeri in Ajmer. The dialect spoken in Bundi and
Kota is Harauti, which is also spoken in Jhalwar and Tonk
Malvi of the former Malwa covers parts of the Jhalawar and Kota
districts. The Bundeli of Narsinghpur and central Hoshangabad,
the Marathi of Berar and the Nemadi dialect of
Rajasthani is spoken in north Nimach and Bhansawar. The Bhils
communicate in Bhili, which is similar to Dungarpur's and
Banswara's Bagria form of Rajasthani with the exception of
slight variation in the pronunciation. However, the language structure
for both of them is the same.